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VanEck predicts Ethereum Layer-2’s collective market cap will climb to $1 trillion by 2030


VanEck believes that Ethereum‘s Layer-2 protocols will hit a collective $1 trillion market capitalization by 2030, according to a new research report published on April 3.

The prediction was revealed in a detailed analysis led by VanEck senior investment analyst Patrick Bush and head of digital research Matthew Sigel.

VanEck’s forecast of a $1 trillion market cap for Ethereum Layer-2s by 2030 reflects a belief in the technology’s potential to significantly enhance blockchain scalability and efficiency, marking a notable shift in the landscape of digital assets and their underlying technologies.

Solving scalability

The investment firm’s analysis assessed the burgeoning Layer-2 ecosystem across several critical dimensions: transaction pricing, developer experience, user experience, trust assumptions, and ecosystem size.

According to the report, Layer-2 technologies, specifically Optimistic Roll-Ups and Zero-Knowledge Roll-Ups, are solving Ethereum’s biggest challenge — scalability.

These solutions aim to expand Ethereum’s capacity for transaction processing without compromising its core attributes of security and decentralization. The analysis points to the EIP-4844 upgrade as a key development, introducing “Blob Space” to reduce data posting costs significantly, thereby benefiting Layer-2 operations financially.

According to the report, the cost reductions enabled by EIP-4844 are pivotal for improving Layer-2 profit margins.

The report also explored the revenue models of Layer-2 solutions, emphasizing transaction sequencing as a primary source of income. It examined both on-chain and off-chain cost structures, particularly noting the expensive proof mechanisms that Zero-Knowledge Roll-Ups employ.


In evaluating the competitive landscape, the study predicts that by 2030, Layer-2s will capture a significant portion of transaction value and Total Value Locked (TVL) within the Ethereum ecosystem.

This growth is partly attributed to the potential of Maximal Extractable Value (MEV) to augment Layer-2 revenues. VanEck’s analysis suggests a future where Layer-2 platforms may offer competitive advantages over Ethereum in specific market segments.

However, the report maintains a neutral tone regarding the speculative nature of the crypto market and the uncertain future of Layer-2 token valuations. It anticipates the emergence of numerous use-case-specific Layer-2 roll-ups, indicating a broader application of blockchain technology beyond finance to sectors like gaming, social media, and infrastructure.

VanEck’s analysis presents a compelling vision of the future, one where Ethereum Layer-2s evolve from nascent technologies to central cogs in the global blockchain ecosystem.


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